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Study the Effect of Different Drying Methods on Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Tamarind Leathers

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Ghada H. Abdel Rahman*, Abdel Halim R. A. and El Rakha B. B.

An investigation was carried out to assess the quality and sensory characteristics of tamarind leather as affected by drying methods. In this study tamarind leathers were dried by two different methods i.e. cabinet drier (70°C) and solar drier (54±4°C). The quality parameters were texture, color, rehydration ratio, drying ratio, pH and titratable acidity and sensory properties of tamarind leathers were evaluated. Results showed that, the moisture content of cabinet dried leathers was lower (5.52%) than that dried by solar drier (7.95%). Instrumental results of texture showed that all the leathers were significantly different (p≤ 0.05), the leathers dried by solar drier were tender (2.52) than that dried by cabinet drier (3.29). Drying methods considerably influenced the color changes of tamarind leathers, that tamarind leathers dried by cabinet drier revealed darker color values (0.138±0.01) than that dried by solar drier (0.043±0.03) . The Rehydration ratio values were (1.78) and (1.44) for tamarind leathers dried by solar and cabinet driers respectively. The drying ratio of tamarind leathers values were significantly different (p≤ 0.05), 3.5 and 3.25 for tamarind leathers dried by cabinet and solar driers respectively. The pH values of tamarind leathers dried by cabinet and solar driers were 2.78±0.03 and 2.81±0.03 respectively. While the treatable acidity values of tamarind leathers dried by cabinet and solar driers were 6.86±0.03 and 7.83±0.39 respectively. Solar dried leathers were liked and received significantly higher scores (p≤ 0.05) on all sensory attributes evaluated.

Barriers of Supply Chain in Supporting Certified Organic Rice (SC-COR) Development in Tasikmalaya Regency, West Java, Indonesia

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Mimin Aminah*, Musa Hubeis, Widiatmaka and Hari Wijayanto

Improving Soil and environment damage and taking advantage of the economic opportunities from the value increase can be the motivation for Indonesia to develop certified organic rice. However, there were 10 barriers impeding the development of certified organic farming in Tasimalaya Regency which needs solution. The 10 barriers in the supply chain in supporting certified organic rice (SC-COR) are as follows: [1] Complexity of certification requirements, [2] Expensive certification costs, [3] Lack of government support, [4] Lack of commitment, [5] Lack of institutional support, [6] Market uncertainty, [7] Lack of capital adequacy, [8] Less economic scale of farming, [9] Lack of consumer awareness, and [10] Insignificant product price. The objective of the paper is to get the appropriate sequential steps of resolving the barriers in the SC-COR, and Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) is employed to achieve the objective. The results shows indicate that "market uncertainty" of certified organic rice and "lack of government support" are the initial determinant keys in overcoming the barriers that occur in overall the SC-COR. The next barriers are "lack of commitment" and "complexity of certification requirement" which are the deciding barriers to be solved at the end of the SC-COR. Nevertheless, based on the Matrice d’Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée á un Classeement (MICMAC) diagram there are several barriers that should get special attention, because it is considered the drivers for all barriers, namely "lack of government support", "lack of institutional support”, "lack of consumer awareness", and "complexity of certification requirement".