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Evaluation of the effects of cysteine and trehalose on long-term cryopreservation of ram semen

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P. Dolti, Gh. Moghaddam* and H. Ahmadian

The sheep artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen results in a low fertility rate because cryopreservation of ram semen is difficult. The objective of this study was to cryopreserve ram semen with cysteine and trehalose for a long time. This study carried out at the Agricultural Research Station of Tabriz University in the breeding season for 3 months. Semen collected from 4 Ghezel (redish-brown) rams using artificial vagina. Samples immediately transported to the laboratory and after a primary evaluation in 37°C all samples were pooled. Semen samples diluted (1:4) with a Tris-based extender containing additives including 50 mM trehalose (T), 4 mM cysteine (Cys), 50 mM trehalose plus 4 mM cysteine (Cys+T) and an extender containing no additives (control), then cooled to 5°C and frozen in 0.25 ml French straws, and finally stored in liquid nitrogen. The frozen straws were individually thawed in 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days for evaluation. The results showed that adding cysteine and trehalose (cysteine+trehalose) significantly (P<0/05) improved frozen-thawed semen characteristics. The highest sperm motility, progressive motility and viability belonged to Cys+T and the lowest to control group. Abnormal sperms in cysteine were lower than the control group (P <0/05). This study showed that the combination of trehalose and cysteine improves long-term cryopreservation of ram semen.


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A systematic study of 15 taxa of genus Convolvulus from Pakistan was carried out by means of 71 morphological traits, including 22 vegetative, 40 floral, 4 fruit and 5 seed. Data were analyzed by cluster analysis for species discrimination and relation. Cluster analyses delimit all species within the genus and distinguished five distinct groups. All herbaceous species are separated from shrubs. From all five spiny species, C. fruticosus, C. psedocantabricus and C. spinosus are group together. While, C. cephalopodus separated with C. virgatus and C. rhyniospermus. C. leiocalycinus found to be distinct from all species of all groups.


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M. M. M. Amein* and M. M. M. Atta

The present work was performed at the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Agriculture Experiment and Research Station over three seasons (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2103) in Egypt to study the variability and relative response to selection in one bread wheat cross (L-53 X V99/17) for two cycles started in the F2 using the pedigree selection procedure in improving grain yield and its components. Result of analysis of variance revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) and highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences among genotypes (families + parents) for all studied traits across the three generations (F2, F3 and F4), so a great response to selection can be expected. Results of variability for grain yield plant-1 revealed that the magnitude of phenotypic and genotypic variances were decrease through generations. However, for grain yield plant-1 the actual gain as percentage of cross mean was higher than the predicted one, through cycle 1 and 2 suggest that the gene action involved in cycle 1 and 2 largely additive.

Behavior of rearing and distribution of drone brood in different parts of colony combs during various seasons under sub-tropical climate

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Mohammad A. Abd Al-Fattah, Ahmed A. El-Shemy and Mohamed S. El-Masarawy*

This study was carried out during the period from February to September of 2015 to study the production and distribution of drone brood within honeybee colonies. The large percentage of drone brood was reared in the centre of brood nest (44.8%) then followed by the left outer area (36.1%), and finally in the right outer area (19.1%). The percentage of capped drone brood that reared in the upper area of comb was highly significant (60.7%) than those reared in the lower ones (39.3%). On the same trend, the results showed that the percentage of drone brood which reared in peripheral position was significant higher (54.1%) than those reared in the centre position (45.9%). There is a highly significant interaction between the position in brood nest and time of year. During spring the colonies primarily reared drone brood in the central brood nest. However, the higher rate of drone rearing was concentrated in the left outer brood nest during summer. These rates of drone rearing were retarded again to the centre area during autumn.


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Mohamed Mostafa Amein

Ten diallel crosses among five flax cultivars showing clear differences were made and evaluated at the Agricultural Experiments Desert Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, in Wadi El-Natroon, El-Beheira Governorate, during three successive growing seasons starting with 2011/2014. The objectives were to estimate the mode of gene action in the inheritance and combining ability effects for studied traits. Combining ability variances were highly significant for all studied traits except plant height at F2 generation indicating the importance of additive and non-additive genetic variances in determining the performance of these traits. Since the ratio of GCA/SCA exceeded the unity, suggesting that additive was much larger and more important than non-additive gene effects in the inheritance of all studied traits. Data indicated great and significant genotypic differences in all studied traits. The averages of F1 crosses were generally higher than F2 in straw yield plant-1 and plant height, while the averages of F1 and F2 were identical in seed yield plant-1, No. of capsules plant-1, oil % and oil yield plant-1. However, crosses averages were higher than parents averages in F1 for straw yield plant-1, plant height, seed yield plant-1, and oil yield plant-1 by 11.83, 4.12 1.39 and 0.71%, respectively. This indicated the superiority of heterozygotes over homozygotes in flax performance. The best general combiners was P1 (Sakha 1) for all traits in F1 while good for straw yield plant-1, seed yield plant-1, No. of capsules plant-1 and oil % in F2. P2 (Sakha 3) and P3 (Sakha 4) were good combiner in F1 and F2 for all traits except plant height in F2. Seed yield of 10 crosses are significantly in F1, whereas in F2 Sakha 4 x S 3/25 is less than zero. No. capsules plant-1 the all crosses significantly greater than zero in F1, whereas in F2 two crosses less than zero (Sakha1 x Sakha 4 and S 3/25 x Olin). However, oil % was significantly greater than zero in F1 and F2 for all crosses. For oil yield plant-1 in F1 two crosses were less than zero (Sakha1 x S 3/25 and Sakha1 x Olin) whereas Sakha 1 x Sakha 4 is less than zero in F2. In most significant positive SCA were usually inconsistent across either generation.

Effect of some cropping systems and preceding crops on production and quality of cotton characters

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Metwally, A.A.*, Abuldahab, A.A., Shereif, M.N. and Awad, M.M.

A Two-year study was conducted at Kafr EL-Hamam Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, ARC, Sharkia governorate, Egypt during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons to study the effect of new cropping systems of growing cotton by planting cotton in relay intercropping with faba bean and wheat or solid plantings after these winter crops. The experimental treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Two cotton cultivars (Giza 86 and Giza 90) were grown in the main plots meanwhile cropping systems were devoted in sub plot as followed: cotton after Egyptian clover (E.c) at 20th March, 20thApril and 20th May. Relay intercropping cotton with faba bean and wheat at 20th March. Growing cotton seeds after faba bean and wheat at 20th April or 20th May, respectively. Faba bean was grown on one side or both sides of the ridge, meanwhile wheat was grown at two or three rows per ridge. Cotton cultivar Giza 86 had higher values for plant height, number of total and open bolls per plant, seed cotton yields per plant and per ha, and fiber technology traits than those of another cotton cultivar. Growing cotton plants as followed E.c or intercropping with faba bean crop at 20th March had the same effects of cotton traits grown solid plantings at 20th April. The late date planting cotton (20th May) as followed after Egyptian clover or wheat caused significant reductions in all the studied cotton traits as compared with those growing in the early date. Growing cotton after/with legumes had positive effect on cotton traits in comparison with those followed or intercropped with wheat. Low plant density of faba bean (one row/ridge) or wheat (two rows/ridge) decreased their effects on cotton traits under relay intercropping, meanwhile, the cotton traits was not affected by plant density of faba bean or wheat when cotton grown after these crops. Cotton cultivar Giza 90 was superior to another cultivar Giza 86 for all traits in the late date.