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The relative susceptibility of certain recommended maize (Zea maize L.) cultivars to infestation with the Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under natural infestation conditions at two different ecosystems in Egypt

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Sameha A. Metwally*, Sayeda S. Ahmed, Sayed A. Safina, Ahmed M. Semeada and Samir I. El-Sherif

The Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest threatening maize (Zea mays L.) plants in Egypt. The relative susceptibility of 18 recommended maize cultivars to infestation with this pest under natural infestation condition was investigated at two different ecosystems; “Wadi El-Natroon”, Beheira Governorate and “Giza” Giza Governorate throughout two successive maize growing seasons (2011& 2012). Criteria used for comparing susceptibility to infestation were the percentage of “Total Infested Plants” (% TIP), percentage of “Dead Hearts” (% DH) and “Infestation Rate” (IR) which is based on an arbitrary rating system. The percentage of “Yield Loss” (% YL) was also considered in the classification process. At Wadi El- Natroon, where a harsh agro ecosystem existed, maize plantations were subject to relatively higher insect populations than at Giza where a relatively milder agro ecosystem prevailed. The correlations between infestation criteria on one hand and % YL on the other were also determined. According to % TIP at Wadi El-Natroon region during 2011 maize growing season (where and when the highest levels of infestation were recorded) tested maize cultivars could be classified into significantly different susceptibility groups. None of the tested cultivars showed immunity or high resistance while 5 cultivars were resistant (SC101, SC 128, SC166, SC173 and TWC329), 5 were relatively resistant (SC162, SC163, SC164, SC30K9 and Cairo 1,), 4 were susceptible (SC168, SC2055, SC3062 and SC30N-11) and 4 were highly susceptible (SC125, SC167, SC2031, and SC30K8)

Effect of organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos and synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin at chronic period in liver and serum of albino mice, Mus musculus

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Amal A.Eisa, M.E. Nassar and A.A. Nassar*

In this research we used chlorpyrifos (organophosphorus pesticides) and deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid pesticides) to study their oxidative stress on albino mice’s liver and serum. Those pesticides were given orally at 1/100 〖LD〗_50 repeatedly for ninety days to represent chronic treatment. Antioxidants enzymes SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and GXP were monitored in treated and untreated mice. 〖LD〗_50 Came to be 54 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg B.W. for chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin, respectively. Chlorpyrifos caused an oxidative stress on both liver tissues and serum as manifested in the above tested antioxidant enzymes. In liver tissues all enzymes were lower except SOD. Meanwhile, all enzymes in serum came to be lower except CAT and GXP showed higher values over the control. Deltamethrin chronic treatment caused an elevation in SOD and GXP in liver tissues and serum. At the same time CAT, MDA and GSH showed a lower values comparing to the control in both liver tissues and serum

Effect of supplemental vitamin C and E on the immune response of newborn calves

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Faramarz Moallem zadeh, Gholamali Moghaddam* and Fatemeh Soltanpourr

An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of vitamin C and E blood metabolites and performance of calves from one day old up to 42 days of ages. In this trial 24 one day old calves were randomly allocated to 6 experimental groups (4 calves per each treatment). Experimental group were 1.control (no supplemented vitamin), 2. Vitamin C (3g/day), 3. Supplemented vitamin C with following order (first and second weeks of age (3g/day), third and fourth weeks of ages (2g/day), fifth and six week of ages (1g/day)), 4. Combination of vitamin E (1g/day) and vitamin C (2g/day), 5. Supplemented with vitamin E (2g/day), 6. Supplemented vitamin E with following order (first and second weeks of ages (0.6g/day), third and fourth weeks of ages (0.9 g/day) and finally (1.2 g/day during fifth and six week of ages. Blood samples were taken from jugulars vein of each animal at the 3, 14, 28 and 42 day of ages. Serum was assayed for total protein, glucose, PCV, hemoglobin, the lymphocyte to neutrophil ratio, ratio of albumin to globulin and Gama globulin. The Gama globulin concentration 28 and 42 days of ages of calves, among of treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05). The calves that were fed with treatment 3 had higher gamaglobulin than the other groups. The ratio of albumin to globulin at 28 days of ages was significantly different among groups(p<0.05), by consideration of that calves given vitamin supplements in group 5,3,2 the ratio of albumin to globulin were higher than other treatment. However there were no significant differences between these three groups (p>0.05). Total serum protein, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin concentration, PCV and the ratio of lymphocyte to neutrophil did not an affect by treatment (p>0.05). Dietary contained vitamin supplement had statistically significant effect on daily weight again (p<0.01). Animal which treated by vitamins had shown higher growth rate than other group