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Occurrence and Distribution of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses in Western Kenya

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A.K Osogo*, J. Muoma, P. Nyamwamu, C.N. Omuse and H. K. Were

Abstract:A survey to investigate the distribution and occurrence of cassava brown streak viruses the causal agent for cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was conducted in major Cassava growing areas of Western Kenya in November, 2011. The highest mean disease incidence was in Busia County (11.5%) while the lowest incidence was in Homa bay County (1.5%). High mean severity score (3) was observed in farmer’s fields in Busia (Mungatsi, Matayos and Mundika divisions) but all the other areas showed no foliar symptoms. CBSD incidence correlated positively with disease severity on the leaves (r= 0.7, p< 0.05) and stems (r= 0.9, p<0.05). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected single infections of CBSV and UCBSV in 64% and 3.4% of the positive reactions respectively. The study revealed a first record of Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) in the Western Kenya. Mixed infections of CBSV and UCBSV were not found in any of the samples from the surveyed fields. The widespread occurrence of CBSV in Western Kenya has implications in the management of the disease in the region. Keywords:Disease Incidence; Disease Severity; Foliar symptoms; PCR; UCBSV.


191-195Full Text

Rios Ruth Paola*,Giuffré Lidia and Romaniuk Romina

Abstract: Biodiesel has emerged as an interesting energy option to the shortage of petroleum products, the main source of energy for mankind, so it is relevant to focus the study of the life cycle of biodiesel on the ground because it acts as an acceptor and final deposit of the waste generated by the biofuel industry. The objectives of this study are: to compare natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation as bioremediation techniques in biodiesel contaminated soils in a pot trial and evaluate the impact of such practices on some soil properties. The design consisted of 5 treatments with 3 replications; soil without pollution ( L ), soil + biodiesel ( LB ), soil + biodiesel + inorganic fertilizer ( LBF ), soil + compost + biodiesel ( LBC ), soil + biodiesel + hydrocarbon degraders ( LBM ). Single samples were taken in the first 20 cm depth, at baseline T0, T1 ( 1 month ), T3 ( 3 months ), T6 ( 6 months ), and a year ( T12). Edaphic variables studied were TPH ( total petroleum hydrocarbons ), pH, organic carbon ( % C ), nitrate ( NO3 ) and phosphorus ( P ). Organic biostimulation treatments ( LBC ) and bioaugmentation ( LBM ) were more efficient in the degradation of biodiesel. The contamination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the soil. Contamination with biodiesel produced a decrease in soil pH and an increase in the content of organic carbon. Keywords: biodiesel, bioremediation, edaphic properties.

Variation in Body Size and Body Shape in Ground Beetle Pterostichus melanarius Ill. (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

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Raisa Sukhodolskaya

Abstract: Research into large-scale ecological rules has a long tradition but has received increasing attention over the last two decades. Our knowledge of the determinants and mechanisms which shape spatial patterns in invertebrate traits is still limited. This study analyzes macroecological patterns in traits variation in P. melanarius (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Beetles were sampled in 1996 – 2008 in different regions of Russia and the plots differed in anthropogenic disturbance and type of habitats. We measured six morphometric traits of nearly 3000 specimens and used linear models and General Procrustes Analysis to investigate how different environmental factors contributed to the body size and shape variation. Our results showed that all environmental variables (region, anthropogenic disturbance, vegetation, landscape features) contributed significantly into the size and shape variation in P. melanarius. The significant SexxEnvironmental Factors interactions indicated a divergence of sexual size and shape dimorphism in different regions and under different anthropogenic disturbance. Various traits in P. melanarius had different latitude gradients: variation of elytra length both in males and females followed converse Bergmann rule, variation of pronotum size had no any direction, variation of head size followed Bergmann rule. Urban and suburban conditions decreased beetles elytra but increased their head. Keywords:Ground Beetles; morphometry, environmental factors, sexual size and shape dimorphism.

Microbial Profile of Sausages in Khartoum State

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Nagwa B. Elhag* El Rakha B. Babiker and Ahmed A. Mahdi

Abstract: In the last ten years meat industry has expanded widely in Sudan. Several sausages factories have bean established in Khartoum State. This study was carried out to investigate and identify different types of microorganisms associated with fresh Sudanese sausage samples sold in Khartoum State, Sudan. The Microbiological parameters investigated were total viable bacterial count, Salmonella, aerobic and facultative anaerobes, coliform, E. coli, and yeasts and moulds. Enumeration of different microorganisms was carried out on selective media and the Identification of microbial isolates was determined using conventional methods. Forty fresh sausage samples were collected from (a) butcheries, (b) 4 factories and (c) home-made. All samples showed high mean total viable bacterial count of which the butchery samples recorded the highest mean (2.81×107- 6.87x107cfu/g). Salmonella was almost detected in all samples. The mean counts for aerobic spore-formers ranged between 9.0×10 and 1.21x103cfu/g, while for facultative anaerobes ranged between 1.70 x10 and 7.50x 103cfu/g. Only four samples were free of coliforms. The highest mean count for coliforms was reported in F1 factory samples (mean 5124 MPN/g). E. coli was detected in 27 of the 40 sausage samples examined. The highest counts were recorded in Khartoum North butchery samples (mean 143MPN/g).Yeasts were found in 36 samples with mean counts between 4.00×10 and 1.49x104cfu/g, while moulds were detected in 23 samples ranging between 0.10x and 4.40x102cfu/g. The dominant bacterial species isolated from the investigated sausage samples belonged to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Micrococcus. Bacillus cereus represented the highest percentage (22.92%) of all isolates. The aerobic spore-formers were dominated by Bacillus subtilis (60%), while the facultative anaerobic spore-formers were dominated by Bacillus cereus (80%). The predominant mould flora was identified as Rhizopus nigricans and Aspergillus niger. Fresh Sudanese sausages as offered for sale suffer from high microbiological loads of bacteria including probable bacterial pathogens, yeasts and moulds. To produce high quality sausage, it is necessary to follow high technology procedures for sausage production and safety measures during processing, handling, transportation and marketing. Keywords: coliforms, Identification, moulds & yeasts, sausages, salmonella, spore-formers.


220-224Full Text

Esam Eldin BM. Kabbashi * and Eiman G. Hassan

Abstract: The store insect pests of wheat in Sudan were found to include the khabra beetle [Trogoderma granarium (Everts )], the flour beetle [Tribolium castaneum (Hrbst)], the long – headed flour beetle [Latheticus oryzae (Water House)], the saw – toothed grain beetle [Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus)], the lesser grain borer [Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricus)], the warehouse moth [Ephestia (Anagasta) kuehnilla (Cautella) Walker], the grain weevil [Sitophilus granarius(Linnaeus)], the Angoumois grain moth [Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)], the flat – headed flour beetle (Cryptolestes sp.) the acarus mite (Acarus siro Linnaeus), and unidentified mites. All these insects and acarids were reported in some or all of the following states viz. Khartoum, Gezira, River Nile, Northern, White Nile, Kassala, Gadarif, Red Sea, Blue Nile, North Kordofan and South Darfur. The biology of these insects was studied in Sudan such as the life history of T. castaneum, T. granarium and E. cautella. However, the susceptibility studies of some Sudanese wheat cultivars revealed that Dibera variety is more resistant to T. granarium, T. castaneum, R. dominica and S. oryzae than Nilein variety. Another study followed reported Dibera as the most susceptible to T. granarium descended by Nilein then Vee/ PJN112 whereas condor was not attacked and found free from damage. The host range of these insects is rather broad i.e. almost all the mentioned pests of wheat grain attack sorghum grain and some of them attack other members of the family graminae (e.g. rice, millet, maize, etc…), leguminous crops (e. g. soybean, fababean, groundnuts, lentil, etc…), they also attack sesame, tamarind, sunflower, water melon seeds and dates. The control of these store product insects (SPI) includes a variety of methods that include proper harvest time and selection of high quality tolerant varieties as prerequisites for a hygienic wheat produce. However, some preventive measures of control include using hygienic stores, good inspection of the sacks before being stored and fumigation by methyl bromide and phosphine. However, the fumigation can be a curative treatment but should not be more than twice, to avoid residues beyond the tolerance level, and a third fumigation should be undertaken when absolutely necessary. The neem derivatives were found very potent in controlling SPI and this beside the advantage of being organic. Some studies determined the susceptibility of some SPI to other botanical insecticides that include cucurbit extracts to T. castaneum, garlic oil on T. castaneum and R. dominica. Other studies include the susceptibility of fenitrothion, primiphos – methyl, chlorpyrifos – methyl, deltamethrin and malathion on T. castaneum and R. dominica. However, the loss assessment due to infestation of wheat grains is a function of storage time and any infestation reduces the market value markedly. This review of the works on SPI of wheat in Sudan stimulates further studies on sound control methods (including IPM strategies), study of the biology of unstudied species and the susceptibility of the wheat varieties to SPI should be included as a prerequisite before passing them. Frequent questionnaires should be designed to pinpoint the deficiencies in the control program(s). However, the role of the government should be activated in private stores, silos and grain markets. Keywords: STORE, WHEAT, SUDAN, PRESPECTIVE, REVIEW.