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Evaluation Of Wheat And Lentil Mixed Cropping Based On Crude Protein Concentration

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Sadullah N. AL-NIEMI and Shukri I. REKANI*

Abstract: Field experiment was carried out during the winter season of 2012 at the Al-Shalalat village which located at the (43º.12”03.64 E) and (36º.28”04.40 N), Mosul city, Nineveh province of Iraq. The aim was to determine the impact of mixed cropping of wheat with lentil on yield performance and to investigate the best combination and efficiency of resource utilization by determining crude protein-land equivalent ratio (protein LER). Mixed cropping resulted in reduced yields of both wheat and lentil as compared to sole cropping. Further results based on the analysis of grain quality showed that crude protein concentration of the mixed crop wheat was increased compared to wheat sole crop, but was estimated lower than in sole and mixed crop grain lentil. The highest performance on Nitrogen, crude protein concentrations and protein LER in wheat grain was achieved in mixed cropping treatment [T5: wheat (100 kg ha-1) + lentil (80 kg ha-1)], but in order to assess better the mixed cropping profitability concerning economical aspect in dry areas of Iraq, this study showed that a wheat (100 kg ha-1) + lentil (40 kg ha-1 ) mixture can gave the highest grain yield with maximal N and wheat grain crude protein content, leading to higher protein LER than other planting ratio and sole cropping. Keywords: crud protein, lentil, mixed cropping, wheat.


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Robert W.Nyukuri*, Stella C.Kirui, Evelyn Cheramgoi, and Ruth Mwale and Gladys C.Koskei

Abstract: Kenya faces acute food shortages to satisfy the increasing population as traditional food stocks continue to be depleted as a result of environmental changes and increasing population. Faced with problems of food insecurity, increasing food prices and overreliance on the traditional food items, there is an urgent need for Kenyans to diversify their food sources. The aim of this study was to determine effects of preservation methods on the proximate composition of the white ants preserved by different methods. Data were collected and analyzed for proximate composition of moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fibres and gross energy production. Results indicated that under traditional and modern preservation methods, only sun drying resulted to increased water loss, crude proteins and fibres and gross energy production. Roasting was the least appropriate method of preserving white ants as it causes massive denaturation of crude proteins and fibres reducing gross energy release due to reduced respiratory substrates. This study therefore concludes that sun drying should used as preservative measure of the white ants food and recommends that more research should be conducted to establish the optimum sun drying temperatures required to obtain the obtain optimum desiccation and crude proteins and fibres. Keywords: Effects, preservation, proximate, composition and white ants.


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Abstract: Successful conservation of diminishing water and land resources are needed to feed an ever increasing world population. Green manuring is one of the methods adopted to conserve moisture in the soil and keeping in mind the needs of arid agriculture its importance becomes more conspicuous. The adoption of insitu moisture conservation techniques in addition to the large scale soil and moisture conservation and water harvesting structures in the watershed is imperative to increase the moisture availability. The principle factor behind these recommendations is to reduce runoff, temporarily impounding the water on surface of soil to increase the opportunity of infiltration. Cover crops like cowpea green manure believed not only to improve the organic matter content of the soil but also to enhance insitu moisture conservation. These crops are planted in June at the onset of Monsoon and allowed to stand in field up to mid August when they started bearing flowers. Later they are incorporated into the soil and the conserved moisture proved beneficial for the forthcoming wheat crop. Keywords: Cover crop, green manuring, Insitu Moisture conservation.

Optimization of Low Methoxyl Pectin and Calcium Levels in the Low Calorie Sour Cherry Jam

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Sayed Anvar Parsayee*, Adel Ahmadi Zonuz, Babak Ghanbar Zadeh and Ali Ayase

Abstract: Response surface methodology was applied to develop a low calorie sour cherry jam. A two factor central composite design was employed to optimize the jam in order to obtain a product with adequate sensory properties, especially, overall acceptability. The independent variables were the pectin and calcium concentrations at 5 different levels. All formulations were submitted to 10 semi-trained assessors using a 7-point structured hedonic scale. The highest score for overall acceptability (6.08) was achieved with a jam containing 1.185% pectin and 0.015% of calcium. Keywords: Response surface methodology (RSM), Sour cherry, Jam, Optimization, LM Pectin.

Effect of diluents on storage of ram semen

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Fatemeh Soltanpour* and Golamali Moghaddam

Abstract: Semen collection and sperm evaluation and addition of preservatives for increasing storage of sperm are essential for successful artificial insemination. This study was conducted on 4 rams (2 Ghezel Merinos and 2 Merinos Moghani) rams to evaluate the effect of 2 liquid diluters (1-egg yolk- citrate, 2-milk) in Khalat poshan research station. Average age of rams was 2-3 years. After rams were trained to serve the artificial insemination, semen samples were collected weekly. It was started from October 2011 to June 2012. After collected semen was mixed with liquid diluents and was stored in a refrigerator for 8 days. Semen after diluting and storage were assessed for pH, viability and progressive motion. Effect of diluent and storage day on pH, viability and progressive motion of sperm were significant (P< 0.01). With the increasing storage day pH, viability and motility progressive of sperm decreased. The success of diluent of milk has been attributed to its protein fraction, which may act as a buffer against changes in pH and as a chelating agent against any heavy metals present. The success of citrate has been attributed that may act as a buffer against changes in pH. The egg-yolk providing protection of sperm against cold shock. This study showed Diluent of citrate-egg yolk had a better sperm protection ability than milk based extenders following 8 day of storage – according to sperm motility, pH and sperm viability. Keywords: Semen, Diluter, Liquid, Viability, Progressive motility.