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Determination of Ochratoxin A in sorghum in Khartoum, Gadaref and Kordofan states in Sudan

82-85Full Text

Salah Eldeen Abass Ali Ahmed

Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. . The objective of this study is to investigate the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in sorghum samples collected from three states of Sudan (Khartoum, Gadaref and Kordofan) and to quantify the amounts of ochratoxin A in sorghum, a simultaneous analytical method was developed, using system High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The results showed that 5 out of 30 (16.7%) of the sorghum samples were contaminated by ochratoxin A at concentration ranging between 0.4 and 0.6 μg kg-1 with recovery 98% at spiking level 2 μg kg-1 and with detection limit (LOD) of 0.4 μg kg-1. Keywords: Ochratoxin A, sorghum, HPLC, Khartoum, Gadaref, Kordofan.

Green Water Credits for Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry in Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics of Kenya

86-92Full Text

Rose A. Akombo*, Cush N. Luwesi, Chris A. Shisanya and Joy A. Obando

Abstract: Farmers living in most Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics (ASATs) of Kenya face the great challenge of fetching water from alternative sources to curb the effect of drought on rainfed agriculture and forestry. They recourse to traditional Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures and other available technologies for saving blue water. Yet, these technologies have become ineffective, owing to the intensity of water disasters arising from climate change and the unsound management of the catchment’s land and water resources. Hence, Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes have been propounded to be bio-physically needed, technologically possible, politically and socially acceptable, and economically feasible for ensuring adaptation to and mitigation of climate related water disasters. These schemes significantly rely on effective SWC measures, hydro-policies, agro-technologies and Payments for Environmental Services (PES) to mitigate the effects of drought on farming and forestry. This paper reveals the strengths and challenges facing these schemes in the ASATs of Kenya. Policy makers need to address these issues prior to implementing GWC schemes. Keywords: Green Water, Forestry, Semi-Arid Tropics, Kenya.

A Performance Assessment and Evaluation of IWM Capacity Building Activities on Participatory Water Resource Management in Kenya

93-108Full Text

Cush Ngonzo Luwesi*, Nele Förch, Mary Nyawira Mutiso, Rose Adhiambo Akombo, Philip Wambua Peter and Esam Badr

Abstract: Kenya was at the brink of an environmental disaster as most of its watersheds were experiencing water stresses, which resulted in deadly conflicts on ownership of the little available resources. In the main cities of Machakos, Nairobi, and Mombasa water supply was unreliable and limited in coverage. The Government was therefore unable to supply water services while managing the resources at the same time. In 1999, the government initiated a reform, which culminated with The Water Act 2002. The new legislation attributed the supply of water services to water-businesses and reserved itself the right to manage the resource in consultation with the public. A Bottom-up approach was suggested for the management of water resources through the creation of “Water Resource Users’ Associations” (WRUAs). The latter needed to work closely with the “Water Resources Management Authority” (WRMA). But how was this new legislation to be implemented? Until 2005, no strategy was available. In pursuant of the Water Act 2002 and water sector reforms, the German International Cooperation (GIZ and DAAD) supported the National Water Resources Management Strategy 2007 (NWRMS) to enable the Water Resource Management Authority (WRMA) implement Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) approaches in Kenya. Universität Siegen (Germany) in partnership with Kenyatta University (Kenya) organized three DAAD Alumni Summer Schools in Meru, from 2006 to 2008, with the logistical and financial supports of the GIZ and DAAD. The latter were to strengthen local stakeholders’ capacity in addressing issues and challenges pertaining to water resources management. This study used both qualitative and quantitative analytical tools to describe and examine the learning process put in place by the German International Cooperation to instill a participatory watershed management practice in Kenya. It assesses key actors and their respective roles, outlines challenges met, and anticipates the actual impact of these Summer Schools on the ground. Results show that DAAD Alumni played a major role in training local stakeholders in designing, organizing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating participatory water resources management plans. Both locals and professionals, mainly constituted by WRUA and WRMA representatives, played a key role during case studies, the interpretation of the law and governmental policies, as well as providing local expertise during fieldwork. The learning process involved a holistic and interdisciplinary approach of problem assessment and resolution. Thus some participants may have been challenged to interact freely and easily with unacquainted ones while others were monopolizing the debate. Nevertheless, the final outcome was positive and greatly contributed to the development of a sustainable and integrated watershed management approach that is being implemented at the local level in most of the watersheds of Kenya. That is why the authors of this paper recommend the concept of the DAAD Alumni Summer School as an innovative tool for facilitating sustainable exchange of knowledge and skills to local stakeholders for their participation in integrated water resources management. Keywords: DAAD, GIZ, Integrated Watershed Management (IWM), Participatory Watershed Management, Performance Assessment and Evaluation (PAE), Summer School.

Determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants pesticides in soil in Qurashi store area, Hasahesa town, Sudan

109-112Full Text

Salah A. Ali* and Adam A. Mohamed

Abstract: A preliminary analysis of POPs pesticides in soil samples from Qurashi in Hesahesa town with distance of 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 meter from the dumping site to the direction to the Blue Nile River using GC with ECD detector. The study indicated that two samples 0 and 10 meter distance from dumping site contain Aldrin with concentration of 37.4 and 5.4μg/kg, the study also showed that four samples were contain Endosulfan I and II with high concentration. The present study concluded that POPs pesticides create health risk for both human and animal and had environmental impacts, hence further research are need in this field. Keywords: POPs, soil, GC, pesticides, Hasahesa, Sudan.

The Contribution of Community Water Management Systems to Enhanced Water Security under Changing Legal and Weather Conditions in Kenya

113-123Full Text

James Maina Mathenge* , Cush Ngonzo Luwesi, Chris Allan Shisanya, Ishmail Mahiri, Rose Adhiambo Akombo and Mary Nyawira Mutiso

Abstract: Since the implementation of the water sector reforms in Kenya in 2006, Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha catchment of Mount Kenya Region has seen the emergence of a Water Resource Users’ Association (WRUA) amid dozens of Water Service Providers (WSPs) and hundreds of Community Water Management Systems (CWMSs). These new legal institutions were mandated to enhance water security through good management of the catchment’s land and water resources and provision of adequate water services to all the stakeholders with their participation in water resources management. This study sought to assess the status of the water balance and security in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha Catchment prior and after the establishment of a WRUA therein. This would thus elicit the contribution of CWMSs to water security in Ngaciuma- Kinyaritha under changing legal and climatic environments. For that purpose, the study used descriptive statistics, OLS regression and hydrological modelling to compute the streamflow, water demand and balance from 1990 to 2012, and predict the future water security from 2013 to 2035 under the NOR scenario (normal weather conditions), XLOSS scenario (flooding) and XSCAR scenario (drought) using BasinIT software, SPSS and MS Excel spreadsheets. Most of the results were pointing out to water shortages in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha from 1993 and onward, generally without enforcement of an Ecological Base Flow (EBF) of 30% by the WRMA. There is therefore need for contingency plans to curb unexpected drought, which should be implemented by the WRUA with participation of existing CWMSs. However, further attribution studies are needed to explain the failure or success of the new legal institutions mandated to manage and supply water in Ngaciuma-Kinyaritha, namely WRMA, WRUA and WSPs. Keywords: Catchment Degradation, Catchment Rehabilitation, Climate Change, Community Water Management System, Self-help groups, Stream flow, Water Balance.